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Fifth US case of coronavirus confirmed

A fifth US case of coronavirus has been confirmed, in Arizona, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said on Sunday. cited by CNN
[Previous story, published at 2:08 p.m. ET]
Health officials confirmed two cases of coronavirus in Southern California — bringing the total to four cases in the United States — as a top Chinese health official delivered some worrisome news about efforts to contain the fast-moving virus.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention notified Orange County health officials Saturday that a potential case of coronavirus tested positive, while Los Angeles County Department of Public Health announced Sunday that the CDC had confirmed another case in a person who had “presented themselves for care” after falling ill.
Worried? Here’s how to protect yourself
“As with other respiratory illnesses, there are steps that everyone can take to reduce the risk of getting sick from circulating viruses, including coronavirus. This includes remaining home when ill, washing hands with soap and water frequently, and getting vaccinated against flu,” said department director Barbara Ferrer.
Both patients in California had traveled from Wuhan, China — the epicenter of the outbreak. The Orange County victim is in isolation and in “good condition” at a local hospital, the Orange County Health Care Agency said in a statement. The Los Angeles County patient was being treated at a local hospital as well, officials said.
State and federal officials are following up with anyone who may have had close contact with the person and is at risk of infection.
The stateside cases prompted Sen. Chuck Schumer to urge the US Department of Health and Human Services to declare an emergency to free up $85 million for the CDC.
The money is already appropriated and sitting in the Infectious Disease Rapid Response Reserve Fund, he said, and the CDC will have full discretion to use the money for epidemiological endeavors, screening, public awareness, staffing and educating local and state officials.
“We want to make sure (the CDC) can sustain this pace and have all the dollars they need should the outbreak get worse,” the senator said. “Use the key now and unlock the money.”
News of the latest American case comes as Chinese Health Minister Ma Xiaowei delivered the revelation that people can spread the virus before they have symptoms — which a veteran US health adviser called a “game changer,” but not in a good way.
It calls into question current US practices to contain the virus, longtime CDC adviser Dr. William Schaffner said.”When I heard this, I thought, ‘Oh dear, this is worse than we anticipated.’ It means the infection is much more contagious than we originally thought,” said Schaffner, an infectious disease expert at Vanderbilt University Medical Center.
If Ma is correct — and information about the virus is constantly evolving — people can go two weeks without realizing they’re sick, during which time they can spread the virus.
In addition to California, cases have been reported in Illinois and Washington state. The Illinois woman had not been sick while traveling from Wuhan to the US on January 13, said Dr. Jennifer Layden, an epidemiologist with the Illinois Department of Health, on Friday.
The CDC said it’s taking aggressive measures to stop the spread of the virus in the United States, but while it considers it a serious public health threat, the immediate risk to Americans is low.
At least 56 people have been killed by the coronavirus in China, and nearly 2,000 confirmed cases have been reported as the nation struggles to contain the outbreak.
Chinese authorities have imposed indefinite restrictions on public transport and travel, with motor vehicles banned in Wuhan’s city center starting Sunday to control the flow of people. Only vehicles with special permits, free shuttles and government vehicles will be allowed to move around.
Amid the lockdown, countries like the US and France have been trying to evacuate their citizens from the central Chinese city. Outside of China, more than 40 confirmed cases have been identified in about a dozen countries.
Coronaviruses are transmitted by animals and people, and the Wuhan strain has been linked to a market in the city that was selling seafood and live animals, including wild species. The Chinese government announced Sunday that it’s banning all sales of wild animals
Beijing will deploy an additional 1,600 medical professionals to Wuhan to help the city cope with the growing number of coronavirus patients, health officials said.

Brown Discharge During Pregnancy

Brown Discharge During Pregnancy

transforms your body in so many ways. From head to toe, the changes are amazing but also confusing. When it comes to brown vaginal discharge during pregnancy, it’s not always easy to tell the difference between what’s normal and what’s not. Let us clear your doubts about brown discharge and brownish spotting.

What Causes Brown Discharge During Pregnancy?

When your baby belly increases, so do your vaginal discharge. This is a sign that your pregnancy is going along smoothly and your hormones are functioning properly.

When you’re pregnant, your body produces enormous quantities of a hormone called estrogen. You will produce more estrogen in one day than a non-pregnant woman does in 3 years. This rise in estrogen levels is essential to increase the blood flow in your uterus and allow the transfer of nutrients to your baby. When more blood flows into your uterus, it stimulates your mucous membranes and causes the increased vaginal discharge.

READ more: Causes Of Vaginal Discharge

Is Brown Discharge Normal During Pregnancy?

Normal vaginal discharge is a thin, milky white fluid. It is usually odorless and should not be associated with irritation, itching or soreness.

If you experience these unusual symptoms, pay closer attention to any changes in the smell, texture, and color of your discharge. A thicker, yellowish and foul-smelling discharge may indicate a vaginal infection. In that case, you should go and see your doctor.

Brown Spotting During Pregnancy

Q. I Have A Brownish Discharge. Is Something Wrong With My Pregnancy?

When your discharge is brownish, it may be the sign of light spotting or bleeding. Rest assured, this is a common occurrence in the first weeks of pregnancy.

The main cause of the brown discharge is “implantation bleeding”: during the first week of pregnancy, the fertilized egg attaches itself to your uterus, causing a normal, light bleeding.

If you experience spotting after sexual intercourse, it may be the result of the increased blood supply caused by pregnancy hormones.

Brown discharge is not something you should worry about. However, if it turns pink or red, it could be the sign of a potential miscarriage. If you notice such changes, it’s best to see your doctor.

Q. How Can I Deal With Pregnancy Discharge?

Increased vaginal discharge during pregnancy is essential to keep you and your baby in perfect health. To cope with pregnancy discharge, simply wear panty liners to keep you clean and dry all day long.

Taking care of your intimate hygiene by using an intimate wash also helps prevent possible infections and some of the unpleasant odors that can be associated with pregnancy discharge.

Causes Of Vaginal Discharge

أسباب الإفرازات المهبلية causes of discharge

All women have it, but it is not always easy to talk about it, even to your doctor or gynecologist. Yet, vaginal discharge is normal, and it indicates good intimate health. So, why do you have it and when should you worry?

Vaginal discharge, also known as leukorrhea, removes bacteria and dead cells present on the vagina’s wall, keeps it clean and prevents infections. Normal vaginal discharge is odorless and colorless, but it is important to know that vaginal discharge, in some cases, maybe a symptom of an infection or illness. You can keep your vagina healthy by learning more about the different causes of vaginal discharge.

Getting Vaginal Discharge?

Having vaginal discharge is completely natural, and even essential for vaginal hygiene! It also shows that a woman’s vagina is working normally. Yet, you sometimes notice that your vaginal discharge looks or smells abnormal, that’s why it is important to know the different causes of normal and abnormal vaginal discharge. Let’s take a look at each of these below:

Normal Discharge

Odorless and colorless (transparent or slightly white), the normal vaginal discharge has a cleaning role in the female body. Normal vaginal discharge is a result of regular estrogen levels. However, elevated estrogen levels can cause heavier normal discharge in the following situations:

  1. During the menstrual cycle, a few days before the release of the egg
  2. A few months before the first menstruation in young girls
  3. Discharge during pregnancy
  4. In women taking estrogen-containing or estrogen-boosting drugs (such as fertility drugs)

Abnormal Discharge

A change in smell, color or consistency of vaginal discharge can indicate a probable vaginal infection. Abnormal vaginal discharge is:

  1. Thicker than normal
  2. Greyish, greenish, yellowish or streaked with blood
  3. Smelly or having a fishy smell
  4. Accompanied by a burning sensation, rash or pain

The following 7 situations promote harmful bacteria and therefore cause abnormal vaginal discharge:

  1. Bacterial vaginosis – It is a more common infection in pregnant women
  2. The use of antibiotics (because they can reduce the number of protective bacteria)
  3. Cervical cancer causes smelly vaginal discharge
  4. Sexually transmitted infections, such as chlamydia
  5. Trichomoniasis: A parasitic infection, which usually results from unprotected sex
  6. Diabetes: High blood sugar levels cause higher levels of glucose in the blood, which can lead to yeast infections, as yeast grows faster in an environment that is moist with sugar
  7. Vaginal atrophy: Drying of the vaginal walls that happens often after menopause

3 Tips For Dealing With Vaginal Discharge:

To better manage vaginal discharge, it is recommended to:

  1. Clean your intimate area with maldena® Sensitive intimate wash. It is specially developed to gently clean and care for your intimate area
  2. Choose the right panty liner: they are  liners are dermatologically-tested, breathable and provide you with everyday freshness
  3. Wear cotton underwear, rather than synthetic underwear, which promotes moisture. Avoid, for the same reasons, clothes that are too tight

Types Of Vaginal Discharge

انواع الافرازات المهبلية Vaginal Discharge

Just like any other bodily feature, vaginal discharge varies considerably from one girl to another. It also changes throughout your menstrual cycle to support the reproductive process. While some variations are perfectly normal, others may be signs of a vaginal infection. So how can you tell if your vaginal discharge is normal or not? Follow our guide.

What’s A Normal Discharge Like?

Four criteria help you identify the nature of your vaginal discharge.

  1. Discharge Color: the normal color of discharge is usually transparent, or whitish. You may see dry and yellowish, and brown discharge after menstruation or during pregnancy.
  2. Discharge Texture: normal discharge varies from pasty and sticky to transparent and stretchy, depending on what phase of the menstrual cycle you’re in.
  3. Discharge Odor: normal vaginal discharge odor usually has a mild scent or no scent at all.
  4. Discharge Quantity: normal vaginal discharge progressively varies in quantity from very little to quite a lot (during ovulation).

When Should I Worry About Discharges?

In your vagina, there are many types of good bacteria. They play an important role in protecting your reproductive system. These bacteria are usually called vaginal flora. But when pathogenic bacteria start multiplying in the vagina, they lead to vaginal infections.

As a warning sign, your vaginal discharge will change suddenly. A change in color or texture, a weird smell, or an unusually large quantity of discharge means that something is wrong, especially if associated with an itching sensation in your private area or soreness in your tummy.

Types Of Vaginal Discharges

In girls, there are 2 common vaginal infections, which affect vaginal discharge as follows:

  • Very fluid white vaginal discharge with irritation: If you have unusually watery white discharge, you may have a fungal infection or thrush. Almost all girls get a fungal infection at some point. It may be due to humidity in the vaginal area, which boosts the proliferation of bacteria.
  • Greyish bad-smelling discharge: If your vaginal discharge suddenly turns grey and smells bad, it may be a sign of bacterial vaginosis (BV). This condition results from a bacterial imbalance in your vaginal flora. It may be caused by scented soaps, unsuited lotions, or bubble bath.

How Can I Treat An Abnormal Vaginal Discharge?

You can’t treat abnormal discharge unless you know what’s caused it. That’s why a visit to your doctor is a must. To make a clear diagnosis, the doctor will ask you questions about your medical history and the symptoms you’re experiencing, and then collect a sample of your discharge to examine it.

Fungal infections are usually treated with antifungal medicine, while bacterial vaginosis is treated with antibiotics.

Preventing these infections is easy once you start adopting the right intimate hygiene routines. Discover how you can take care

What Is White Discharge ?

الافرازات البيضاء

White discharge, also called Leukorrhea, is a natural discharge of the vagina. Usually white and with a viscous texture, it occurs throughout a woman’s hormonal life, from a few years before menstruation through to menopause.

  • Having discharge is a normal part of a woman’s life cycle and it means that her genitals are working properly.
  • It provides permanent hydration and vaginal lubrication since it is composed of cervical mucus, which is secreted and usually increases in amount when you are near ovulation or are ovulating.
  • However, there are some rare instances when it can also be a sign of a genital infection. Knowing its types can help you understand your body better.

Types Of White Discharge:

If you noticed vaginal discharge and you are confused if it is normal or not, then it is important to know the different types of white discharge.

The following are the three major types:

  1. Thick White Discharge:

    This is the most common type of vaginal discharge and normally occurs at the beginning or end of the menstrual cycle. This kind of thick discharge is perfectly normal.

    If you are pregnant then thick discharge usually and commonly occurs during the early stages and the 3rd trimester.

  2. Milky White Discharge:

    It occurs during ovulation or the early stages of pregnancy. It is either odorless or has a very mild odor.

  3. Thick And Clumpy White Discharge With Odor:

    Thick and clumpy discharge, especially if coupled with strong odors, may indicate signs of vaginal infection. Consult your doctor to make sure it’s nothing serious.

What Are The Reasons For White Discharge?

  1. Cleanses And Protects You From Bacteria:

    The vagina is made up of cells that constantly renew themselves, like the skin. Whereas the cervical mucus evacuates not only the dead cells but also the germs that could have developed in the vagina.

  2. Moisten:

    White discharge is a natural lubricant. It helps keep the female reproductive system functioning because being kept moisturized prevents different diseases and infections.

What Is Abnormal White Discharge?

Women produce on average 1 to 4 ml of vaginal discharge every 24 hours. Of course, the flow can vary for different women and different factors, such as ovulation or use of contraception.

READ more: Causes Of Vaginal Discharge

In some cases, the white discharge may be a sign of vaginal infection. Most often, it is due to a commonly found fungus, Candida Albicans. This is known as candidiasis or vaginal thrush. It is estimated that 3 out of 4 women have had or will have vaginal thrush in their lifetime. Even if it is not serious, it causes some trouble and can be annoying to deal with. That is why it is important to treat it quickly.

As soon as you notice a change in the smell, texture or color of your discharge, it is important to consult your gynecologist. This is particularly the case if your discharge:

  • Gives off a strong and/or unpleasant smell
  • Suddenly becomes darker or greenish
  • Has a grainy appearance or feel
  • Thicker and more sticky than usual

Other signs should also alert you. If your discharge is accompanied by itching, a burning sensation, pain in the lower abdomen, discomfort during sex or urination, do not wait to make an appointment with your doctor.

What Are The Causes Of Abnormal White Discharge?

Many factors can increase the risk of having abnormal discharge such as:

  • Taking certain medications
  • Hormonal changes (puberty, pregnancy, menstruation, oral contraceptives, hormonal IUD, etc.)
  • Fatigue and weakening of the immune system
  • Diabetes
  • Excessive hygiene (douches, irritating soaps)
  • Intensive sports activities causing excess perspiration
  • Swimming in chlorinated pools
  • Very tight and wet clothes
  • Blood sugar levels (only in women with a disrupted glucose test)

7 Tips To Manage White Discharge:

  1. Use of panty liners: Pantyliners are designed to help you manage discharge. Using them daily helps protect panties and makes you feel clean and fresh down there every day.
  2. Intimate Wash: Showering daily using a mild intimate wash that is pH balanced is vital to keep your intimate area clean.
  3. Toilet: After using the toilet, always wipe. This can help prevent bacteria from your rectal area infecting your vagina.
  4. Shower: Avoid hot tubs. Wash daily with intimate wash and pat your genital area dry.
  5. Underwear: Wear cotton underwear during the day and change your underwear 2-3 times a day. Cotton allows your genital area to “breathe”. Do not wear underwear at night.
  6. Tight pants: Avoid wearing tight pants, tights, swimsuits for long periods. Change your laundry or fabric softener if you think it could irritate your genital area.
  7. Some contraceptives: Latex found in condoms, diaphragms and sperm gels that are used for birth control can be irritating to some women. If you think any of these things are a problem for you, talk to your doctor about alternative contraceptives.

What Is The Treatment For White Discharge?

Your doctor or gynecologist may prescribe antifungal medications. These medications can be taken in several forms: as tablets, orally, or in the form of cream. The doctor may also prescribe a local cream for inflammation of the vulva.

It is imperative to continue the treatment until the end of the prescribed period, even if the symptoms disappear quickly, to avoid recurrence.

Having 1-2 infections a year is normal. However, from 4+ infections per year, vaginal thrush can be considered recurrent. Then you may have to start a background treatment that will be prescribed by your gynaecologist

What Is Brown Discharge?

الافرازات البنية brown discharge

Although in most cases brown discharge is harmless and natural, it can be scary for some women. Most often, vaginal discharge can either be brown or light brown, which is a result of old blood mixing with discharge and leaving your body.

This can happen before or after the period, or during pregnancy. The timing of the brown discharge is important to track though, as it can be indicative of other issues that should not be ignored. Let’s try to understand what are its causes and when it is best to consult a doctor.

Causes Of Brown Discharge?

It can be a result of various factors such as age, sexual activity, use of birth control, menstruation, ovulation bleeding, infection or pregnancy. Paying attention to any discharge that you have and when you have it is essential to know the cause for it.

  1. Before And After Period:

    If you notice brown discharge before your period, then it can be either because you have low progesterone levels or because you started using a different method of birth control. Sometimes, in case you have got your period later than usual, you might observe a brown discharge rather than red.

    On the other hand, if you notice it after your period, it can be related to the fact that your vagina is evacuating the remaining blood or old cells. It might also be due to an irritation that is causing bleeding, which turns brown before it gets out of the body.

    READ more: Causes Of Vaginal Discharge

  2. During Pregnancy:

    The increase of hormones in the body and blood flow to the cervix can lead to brown discharge during pregnancy. Listed below are some other causes of discharge during pregnancy:

    • If you have reached the last month of pregnancy, having it can be a sign of approaching labor time
    • If the brown discharge becomes persistent and is accompanied by severe pain in the lower abdomen, it can be a symptom of miscarriage, which is the loss of the fetus before the second trimester. If you are in doubt, it is advised to visit your doctor immediately.
    • Although unlikely, brown discharge can also result from an ectopic pregnancy. Be aware that this type of pregnancy is an urgent case; as it means the implantation did not happen in the right place and may cause severe bleeding. However, brown discharge may also be due to the detachment of the egg. It is, therefore, crucial to exercise caution to avoid the risk of complications
    • READ MORE: Discharge During Pregnancy
  3. Hormonal Changes

    If your brown discharge is related to hormonal disturbances, you must find a balance. This may involve a change in your method of birth control or simply a change in your lifestyle or nutrition.

  4. Other Causes:

    If your brown vaginal discharge is caused by a disease, only your doctor can direct you to the most appropriate treatment.

When Is Brown Discharge A Cause For Concern?

Brown vaginal discharge in certain cases, however, might indicate health conditions that may require immediate medical attention. It is best to consult your doctor if you notice any of the following signs:

  • Unpleasant odors
  • Pain and itching in the area of the vagina and pelvis
  • Abdominal pain
  • High body temperature or fever
  • Discharge during intercourse
  • Dryness of the vagina
  • Increased need for urination

The doctor will then perform a vaginal swab and will suggest a proper treatment depending on the results or will ask you to undergo more detailed check-ups.

Tips For Dealing With Brown Vaginal Discharge:

Brown discharge is, in most cases, normal and there is no treatment for it in particular. Yet, treating the cause will help you eliminate it.

The best way of managing any vaginal discharge is by using panty liners daily. Panty liners are designed to protect panties and make you feel clean and fresh down there every day. They come in different sizes and shapes and can help you feel more comfortable.

Another recommendation is to shower daily using an intimate wash. The right intimate was is pH balanced and specially designed for your intimate area. This helps keep you clean and fresh every day

Discharge During Pregnancy

افرازات بنية اثناء الحمل Discharge During Pregnancy

You’re already 9 months pregnant and ready to welcome your bundle of joy. Your body has so many ways to show you that you’re going to be a mom soon, and one of them is increased vaginal discharge. What causes this Discharge During Pregnancy, and how do they affect the course of your pregnancy? Find out next.

What Causes Increased Vaginal Discharge In The Ninth Month?

As you go into the ninth month of pregnancy, you will experience a noticeable increase in vaginal discharge. This is not something to worry about, but rather a sign that your body is entering the last phase before delivery.

The increase in discharge results from the fact that your body is shedding a substance called the mucus plug. The Mucus plug is thickened mucus that forms at the beginning of pregnancy and plays a major role in preventing bacteria from reaching the uterus and harming your baby. When labor approaches, this mucus is released to allow your baby to come out.

How Do I Know I’m Releasing The Mucus Plug?

Most of the time, women don’t notice the release of the mucus plug. This is because it looks pretty much like pregnancy discharge, and maybe shed during urination or bowel movement. Releasing the mucus plug doesn’t necessarily mean you’re going to give birth in the next couple of hours. It may take days, even weeks, before the other signs of labor make their appearance.

If your mucus plug is tinted with blood, it’s a sign that your cervix is starting to open up. You can expect to go into labor anytime now. Make sure to inform your doctor.

Vaginal Discharge, Urinary Leakage Or Amniotic Fluid?

If you notice a warm clear fluid suddenly flowing out of your vagina, it could be your water breaking. Usually, the amniotic fluid sac in which your baby is floating ruptures about 24 to 48 hours before labor starts. Sometimes, this fluid could be mistaken for urinary leakage or an increase in vaginal discharge, both common during pregnancy.

If you’re not sure whether this is a urine leak, discharge, or a break in the amniotic fluid sac, you can perform this simple test at home:

  • Go to the bathroom, empty your bladder and then put on clean undergarments and a large panty liner. Once done, lay down for about half an hour and then stand up.
  • If your water is breaking, you will likely wet your panty liner again when you stand up. If the panty liner remains dry, then what you’ve experienced could have been a urine leak or just extra vaginal discharge.
  • In all cases, consult with your doctor to clear up your doubts.

Everything You Need To Know About Intimate Wash

غسول المهبل Intimate Wash

It is habitually the case to sit down together on a ladies’ night out and discuss everything, from makeup and beauty, our romantic interests and our professional goals and dreams, and really, everything. But not often is the case that we sit together to discuss feminine hygiene and Intimate Wash .

For many people, this is a taboo subject, but feminine hygiene is an essential factor in every woman’s life.

Intimate washes are used to maintain feminine hygiene – to keep the area clean to avoid bad odour and even infections. Staying clean and fresh in the morning sets us right for the rest of the day, and that’s what the best feminine washes can provide for women.

Causes For A Smelly Vagina

Acidic PH

The vagina, unlike the rest of the body, maintains an acidic pH level. This is to keep good bacteria around, and bad bacteria at bay. Following an appropriate intimate hygiene routine that is in addition to your body cleansing, helps to avoid infection and allows your vagina to stay healthy.

Bad Odour

Bad odour can arise from sweating or even from wearing tight underwear or jeans. But if it’s summer-time, or if you regularly exercise, or simply walk during the day, your sweat glands are bound to act up – and cause you to smell.

We deal with this for the rest of our body using body wash, deodorants, and wearing clean clothes. As for our intimate area, a feminine wash comes to rescue – it keeps it clean and fresh, saving you from any awkward moment throughout the day.

Vaginal Douching Or Washing Your Vagina – How To

The vagina naturally cleanses itself. It does this by maintaining the acidic pH balance and releasing white discharge. However, that is not to say that many women don’t experience yeast infections or complications due to bad intimate hygiene.

An intimate wash specifically designed for the intimate area is the only type of wash you should use around your vagina. Never insert any creams or lotions, or soaps in your vagina, as that may disrupt the pH balance. Soaps in and around the area are also always a bad idea, and that is because these soaps and shower gels are designed for the rest of the body and not the intimate area.

Not all feminine washes are the same – some can be stronger than others, killing even the good bacteria in the vagina. This is why it’s important to use the right intimate wash –one that is specially made, and pH balanced for the intimate area.

Benefits Of Feminine Washes

Feeling confident is just one of the benefits of using intimate washes. The freshness and cleanliness you feel soon after keeps your mind off the worry of odour and allows you to get on with your day,.

There are even health benefits. They help regulate pH levels. Some even have aloe vera which can keep you moisturized, further preventing the rise of any infections. The maldena Intimate Wash is designed specifically for this with a gentle pH balanced formula to keep you fresh and clean throughout the day.

Choosing The Right Intimate Wash

Feminine washes aren’t harmful, as they are made specifically for your intimate area.

Your safest choice should be fragrance-free, and that is to ensure that the vaginal pH level remains regulated. The maldena ® Sensitive Intimate Wash is developed just for the intimate area. It is mild, soap-free and respects the natural pH level, just like a good intimate wash should.

You should use maldena intimate wash daily to get that shower fresh feeling down there all day, every day!

Structure and Function of Skin

Structure and Function of Skin

The skin is the largest organ in the body, with a total area of ​​about 20 square feet. It protects from microbes and elements, helps to regulate body temperature, and allows the feeling of touch, heat, and cold.

What are the layers of the skin

Although you might not normally think of it as an organ, it is actually made of tissues that work together as one structure to perform unique and critical functions.

The skin and its ancillary structures form the integrative system, which provides the body with comprehensive protection. The skin consists of multiple layers of cells and tissues, which are attached to the body’s basic structures by the connective tissueStructure and Function of Skin.

The deep layer is connected to much of the vascularized blood vessels (it has many blood vessels). It also has many autonomic and sympathetic nerve fibers, which ensures communication to and from the brain.

It consists of two main layers: the epidermis, made of closely packed epithelial cells, and the dermis, made of dense and irregular connective tissue that includes blood vessels, hair follicles, sweat glands, and other structures. It is located under the dermis under the skin, which mainly consists of connective and fatty tissue.

Depending on the location of the skin in the body, the epidermal cells from the base to the surface are arranged in four or five layers.
Skin with four layers of cells is referred to as “thin skin.” From depth to surface, these layers are stratum basale, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, and stratum corneum. Most of the skin can be classified as thin .
“Thick skin” is only found on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet. It is distinguished by having a fifth layer, called the stratum lucidum, and is located between the stratum corneum and granular layer.

The cells in all layers of the epidermis except the basal layer are called keratinocytes. Keratin Cell is the cell that makes and stores protein keratin. Keratin is a fibrous protein within cells that gives hair, nails, and skin its hardness and waterproof properties. Keratinocytes in the stratum corneum are dead and fade regularly, and are replaced by deep layer cells

These layers can be divided in another way into 3 main sectors

  • the epidermis, which is the outermost layer of skin, acts as a waterproof barrier and creates our skin tone.
  • The dermis or dermis under the epidermis contains solid connective tissue, hair follicles, and sweat glands.
  • Hypodermis The deepest subcutaneous tissue is composed of fatty and macrophages.

Skin color is created by special cells called melanocytes, which produce melanocytes. The melanocytes are located in the epidermis.

world braille day

The world celebrates for the second year in a row, ” world braille day 2019″, and Braille is a language that has been created that allows blind people to read through specific symbols.

The celebration takes place on January 4 of each year. The celebration aims to encourage the blind or those who suffer from Its severe weakness in reading and writing and consolidating their actual presence in their societies, in addition to providing an opportunity to identify the problems that they may face.

We at HK want to care about awareness of the value of these global days such as world braille day because of our belief in our role towards society for more awareness, education and knowledge dissemination.

The World Health Organization (WHO) has stated that people with vision impairment are more likely than those who have a complete vision to experience higher rates of poverty and defects that can amount to a lifetime of inequality.

Why January 4 is a world braille day to celebrate world braille day
French scientist Louis Braille

world braille day

It was chosen on January 4 of every year, as this date coincides with the birthday of the French scientist Louis Braille in 1809, who also died on January 6 in 1852, and despite his short life, he left his mark in history, he is the inventor of writing in a way Braille named after him. And Braille has revolutionized the lives of the blind and the blind, by creating a reading and writing system based on the notion of six salient points.

His accident lost his sight

Louis was born in the city of Coupvray, east of the French capital, Paris, on January 4, 1809, and when he was a three-year-old, he lost sight in one of his eyes, due to a sharp object colliding in it, while he was learning in his father’s workshop for the leather industry.

Doctors tried to save his eye but they did not succeed, and after two years of the accident, he lost sight of the second eye due to her sympathetic ophthalmia, a type of inflammation that occurs after one of the eyes was severely bruised, and despite this, he continued his life and began learning to walk on the roads of his small city thanks The stick that his father designed.

About Braille
What is Braille?

The first thing that was published in Braille was during the year 1837. As for the entire method, it was published only in 1839 and was not used officially until 14 years later.

Braille spread throughout France in 1854, but two years after the death of its inventor, before it subsequently spread throughout the world, as the best way to learn to read and write for the blind. Braille was accepted in Britain only in 1869, and it began to be used in the United States of America in 1860, modified after 1919 and known as the modified Braille method.

In the year 1915, research was published to Braille, confirming the possibility of using his method of writing the musical notes for the blind. He also invented a tablet and a type of pen that can be used to write on paper accurately in musical lines with double fingers.

In 1951, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, affiliated with the United Nations, unified the writing as much as the parallels between the common voices in different languages ​​allow. This movement resulted in the current system of Arabic symbols. Writing (Braille) is based on 6 main points, 3 on the right and 3 on the left. From these six points, all letters, acronyms, and symbols are formed.

The specialists in Braille in the Arabic language have benefited from the researches of the advanced Arab countries in this field in terms of making prominent writing easy.

Braille is a means of communication for blind persons, as contained in Article 2 of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and is necessary in the context of education, freedom of expression and opinion, access to information and written communication, as well as with regard to social inclusion of the blind, as contained in Articles 21 and 24 of Agreement. and to celebrate world braille day every January

The Braille language , which illuminated the way of knowledge, knowledge, and reading of millions of blind people, relies on a system of raised dots and enables the blind or visually impaired to read and write by touch. Learn more about Braille alphabets

Braille is important for communicating with a disability challenge

Many language experts point to the importance of inventing the Braille method of reading and writing for the blind to contribute extensively to filling the deficiency and satisfying the need for knowledge and science that the blind world was suffering, and they are now able to read and write like other ordinary people, although the method differs. Initially, Braille had trouble understanding that code, reducing the maximum number of points from 12 to 6, and he began working on inventing a new writing method, and he finished it when he was only 15 years old, and he presented it to his friends at the institute in 1924

He worked on starting letters either with point number (1) or by point number (2). He also worked on making the letters most used in the language with a few points. Therefore, the most frequently used letters constitute three or four points. Arab bodies for the blind have reached abbreviations of more than 182 words widely circulated, and in this way, it was possible to save the time and effort required for writing.

With the computer entering our world, the system entered the 8 points in the computer system to give room to accommodate the largest possible number of signs and symbols, but this system remained in use only in the computer and did not expand to others, and the way these characters are read from left to right.

The number of users of Braille

The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that approximately 1.3 billion people worldwide live with some form of vision impairment or nearsightedness. People with low vision are more likely than those who do not have high rates of poverty and deprivation.

There are an estimated 39 million blind people worldwide, while another 253 million people have vision impairment. For many of them, there is an overland method